9:30-9:45  -  Coffee

9:45-10:00  -  Welcome and scope - Uri Schattner

9:50-10:00  -  Greetings from Prof. Zvi Ben-Avraham (Head, Mediterranean Sea Research Center of Israel; Founding Director, Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences)

Marine Technologies (under establishment)

10:00-10:10 Avi Abu - Unsupervised segmentation of underwater objects in sonar images

Recently, high resolution sonar technology has become more feasible and available for military as well as civilian applications. The demand for unmanned underwater missions has been increased in the last decades. Missions like seabed classification, archaeology and pipeline monitoring can be found as popular underwater missions. High resolution sonar technology provides high quality of seabed images. During a mission of AUV (Autonomous underwater vehicle), large data sets are being restored for further processing. Real time (or near real time) automatic processing on-board is required in order to shorten mission's time and automatically react to different kinds of underwater scenarios. Unsupervised segmentation methods will be investigated in our research. Improving segmentation results may lead directly to better performances in object classification and as follows to success of underwater missions. Enhanced initialization scheme will be developed as well as new models for spatial dependency of neighboring pixels in sonar image.

10:10-10:20 Tali Treibitz - Sparus AUV for marine visual seafloor surveys

In this talk I will describe the hovering AUV we acquired and plan to start operating by end of 2017. The SPARUS II AUV is a lightweight hovering vehicle with mission specific payload area and efcient hydrodynamics for long autonomy in shallow water (200 meters). It combines torpedo-shape performance with hovering capability and is easy to deploy and to operate. The payload area can be customized by the end-user and it uses an open software architecture for mission programming. The key advantages of the vehicle are: a) torpedo-shape movement with efficient hydrodynamics and long autonomy; b) hovering capability for high maneuverability; c) lightweight vehicle, similar weight and size than underwater gliders; d) easy operation, which can be operated by 2 persons. from any small boat; e) mission specific payload: open hardware for equipment integration; The AUV will be used as a platform for visual surveys and introduction of novel underwater image reconstruction and developing algorithms for reconstruction of radiometrically-consistent images and multispectral information and integrate them with refraction aware 3-D reconstruction models. In addition we plan to design and implement novel maneuvering capabilities that will facilitate imaging at the necessary level of detail. Such maneuvers are not supported by current platforms, and so will expand AUV survey capabilities. The AUV final product will be high-resolution three-dimensional mapping of the seafloor from images, that will be overlaid with color-consistent and spectral information.

10:20-10:30 Yevgeni Gutnik - Manoeuvring Performance of an AUV

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are gaining a dominant role in the marine science, commercial and naval fields. In marine geoscience, AUVs have an important role in mapping of the seafloor morphological features and the study of underwater volcanism and hydrothermal vents. Their capability to image vast areas of the seabed at high resolution make AUVs an essential tool in deep-water archeology and offshore engineering where AUVs are successfully employed in pipeline surveys. 

The performance of an AUV in most applications is considerably dictated by its manoeuvring precision and endurance. Estimating those is of a significant importance to a successful mission accomplishment and AUV versatility. Our research is about the modification of AUV maneuvers, from partially hoovering with heave, surge and yaw control to fully hoovering vehicle by extending the controlled maneuver capabilities, using additional thrusters and control surfaces to allow sway and pitch control and developing of non-linear model of the AUV, using MATAB and SIMULINK in order to simulate the AUV motion response in six degrees of freedom, verification with actual data and simulate modification and additional control loops. 


Marine Geosciences

10:30-10:40 Or Bialik - Application of petrophysical, sedimentological and geochemical tools to understanding of Paleocene/Eocene paleoclimate and paleoceanography in the Levant

The Paleogene rock column comprises the last deep water rock series to encompass the Levant margin, and currently well exposed onshore. As such, it provides us with both an important analog for similar environments in the past as well as a venue to explore paleoclimate and paleoceanography of the period. 

In this talk, we will discuss new results from two long continues cores from southern and northern Israel, their physical, sedimentological and geochemical properties and how the relation between these properties inform us about both predictive rock properties and paleoenvironmental conditions in the region.    

10:40-10:50 Eleen Zirks - Evolution of the Holocene oxygen minimum zone in the SE Levantine basin

Investigation on past Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ) is of great interest since those are growing in modern oceans. The effect of the Nile river of the development and evolution of sapropel S1 (10.8 to 6.1 ka cal BP) will be explored to see how the redox status changed over time and space. Most studies concentrate on the deep water below 1800 m water depths and neglect the shallower water. A new conceptual model with four water layer in the eastern Mediterranean Sea is introduced in this study; with well ventilated surface water (0-200 m), intermediate water (200-500 m), the partially ventilated sapropel intermediate water (SIW, 500-1800 m) and long-term stagnant deep water below 1800 m. This research focuses on the water depths between 500-1800 m and will be carried out on three new sediment cores from 600, 1200 and 2400 m in a transect outwards from the Israeli coast into anoxic-euxinic deep water. The cores will be the first to be analyzed both geochemically for major and redox sensitive trace metal (RSTM) and micropaleontological together at the same cores. The cores will be dated by ’wiggle matching’ using δ18O and by 14C-AMS dating on selected samples. This data will be used to confirm the four layer model and together with previous data will be used to refine the understanding of the evolution of paleoenvironmental conditions through sapropel S1 times caused by natural changes. Declining oxygen levels and expanding OMZ, is being reported in the distal coastal shelf of many large river systems, which is causing increasing ecosystem stress. The results of this investigation will enable us to understand the sequence of evolving changes in redox and other biogeochemical changes that will help predict the consequences of anthropogenic changes on these very important parts of the modern ocean. Preliminary patterns have been obtained by detailed examination of results from previous sediment cores from the eastern Mediterranean Sea in which either benthic foraminifera or RSTM data have been published. These cores reveal a distinct pattern in onset and offset of sapropel S1 and in the interruption of sapropel S1 at 8.2 ka BP. The onset of S1 is earlier the shallower the water depths is. The offset of sapropel S1 is earlier the deeper the water depths is. An interruption can be seen best in sediment cores from shallower water depths.

Schematic diagram of the water masses and controls on redox chemistry off the Israeli coast and shelf during sapropel S1 times. Purple dots indicate the water depth of two cores from the data collection. Red dots indicate the proposed water depths of the planned cores of this project. Blue arrows indicate the direction of water flow. Green arrows indicate the flux of organic matter, decreasing in amount from the coast to offshore. 1) Oxic, well ventilated water. Slower exchange than at present, 2) Sapropel Intermediate Water formed in Adriatic/Aegean Sea. Oxygen depleted during transit towards the east, 3) Deep water stagnant starting at H1, anoxic with no benthic foraminifera.

10:50-11:00 Ernst Uzhanskii - Estimation of gassy sediment parameters using acoustical methods, Lake Kinneret, North of Israel

Shallow gassy aquatic sediments, abundantly found in Israel and worldwide, are a source of major concern for their contribution to destabilization of coastal and marine infrastructure, ecological balance, air pollutions, and global warming. Gas bubbles within sediment change effective sediment properties, including geo-acoustical parameters. Among other characteristics, sound speed is the most sensitive parameter to the presence of gas. The purpose of the current research is to characterize gassy sediment in the Lake Kinneret using acoustical methods. Method of measurement uses connection between properties of the sound signal passing through or scattered from bubble aggregation in bottom layer and parameters of the sediment. Gas fractures in the sediment will be quantified by estimation of reflection coefficient and thus compressional sound speed in the sediment. The relationship for the frequency spectrum and angle distribution of intensity and sound attenuation for the signal passing through sediment will be derived within framework of certain parameters of sediment. Experimental test of acoustical methods will be carried out in the Lake Kinneret, where significant methane nucleation in sediment takes place. Acoustic characterization of gassy sediment parameters will give a non-invasive, cost-effective method, allowing remote rapid scanning over large areas of bottom sediments. This, in turn, will allow better understanding of methane gas distribution in upper sediment layer and can be used in monitoring of ecological balance of the region.

Angular dependence of the bottom reflection for different effective sound speeds in the sediments. Sediment density was assumed to be 1300 kg/m3.The figure shows significant difference for reflection coefficient especially for grazing angles close to 90°. Certain sound speeds are taken for soundspeeds of 1500 m/s for zero gas content in the sediment, 1000 m/s for 0.01%, 450 m/s for 0.1% and 150 m/s for 1% of gas concentration.


11:00-11:10 Uri Schattner - Stratigraphic analysis of the eastern continental margin of North America

The Atlantic margin of North America is widely cited as a classic example for rifting processes, thermal subsidence and maturation of a passive continental margin. The margin developed between the middle-late Triassic and early Jurassic when oceanic crust began to emerge. It comprises three main geological units, separated by unconformities (from bottom to top): (1) crystalline basement, (2) syn-rift volcano-sedimentary unit, and (3) sedimentary succession. Most of the studies focusing on the structure and development of the margin were conducted during the 1970's and 1980's. The Recent release of datasets allows reexamination of the fundamental paradigms using modern methods and theories. The current study aims at reconstructing the stratigraphic architecture, subsidence patterns and crustal deformation of the margin as well as to constrain the timing of events leading to its formation. By modeling the development sequence the study will address the evolution of divergent margins in general (i.e. tectonic mode of divergence) and this margin in particular. The study area extends across the entire Atlantic continental margin of the United States. Data used include ~5000 2D multichannel seismic reflection profiles from several vintages covering ~314,000 square km and data from 46 exploration boreholes. The interpretation is based on standard seismic stratigraphy methodologies, constrained by the borehole data. In addition, 3D back-striping will be applied to depth converted structural maps. Early results show a multi-layer structure of the continental margin; its thickness and composition varies along the margin from Massachusetts to N. Carolina. The current stage of the research examines the possibility that the variability was formed by a segmented divergence of the North Atlantic. 


11:10-11:30 BREAK 


Marine Biology

11:30-11:40 Shani Levy - GABAB receptor involved in metamorphosis, regeneration, locomotion and Neuorogenesis in the Sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

Nematostella vectensis is a member of the Cnidaria phylum, a sister group to Bilateria. Dated to 700 million years ago cnidarians are the oldest metazoan taxa that possess a nervous system. Although simple and non-centralized, their nervous system shares most of the components and associated genes with those of higher organisms, including humans. In this study, we use Nematostella as a model for studying the role of GABA-B receptors during planula-to-polyp transformation, regeneration and specifically in neural development. Our results show that constitutive activation of GABA-B receptors by GABA-B agonist inhibits metamorphosis and regeneration and also inhibits the locomotion of the planula. We also found that expression of genes involved in neurogenesis decreased significantly following activation of GABA-B receptors.  Our aim is to understand the pathways and the molecular mechanism underling these processes and to reveal new role for GABA-B receptors in development. 



Fig. 1: Reversible and complete inhibition of metamorphosis following baclofen (GABA-B agonist) treatment. (A) Percentage of metamorphosis (planula transformation into primary polyp). Control- untreated planulae, 90% of the planulae transformed into primary polyps. GABA-B agonist treatment – planulae that were treated with baclofen.  less than 1% of the planulae transformed into polyps. Agonist removal - planulae treated with baclofen that was washed and removed on the 13th day post fertilization (dpf). Seven days after agonist removal (20dpf) more than 50% of the planulae had transformed into primary polyps. (B) Control untreated planula transformed into primary polyp. (C) Arrested planula treated with baclofen. (D) 4 days after agonist removal, arrested planula transformed into primary polyp. Scale bar- 50µm

11:40-11:50 Sophi Mermen - A long term study of microbial and environmental dynamics in an intensely impacted aquaculture ecosystem

11:50-12:00 Stephane Martinez - Mediterranean Long Term Ecological Research (LTER)

For many years the Mediterranean Sea remained in the background of Israel’s public and academic awareness. In recent years the discovery of gas and crude oil reserves in the Mediterranean Sea and its current situation as Israel’s main drinking water source has placed the Mediterranean Sea in the spot light. The Mediterranean Sea LTER in Sdot-Yam, was recently formed with the aim of creating long term ecological research and provide the required infrastructure. The LTER program is covering a broad range of spectrum from Bactria to top predator, Chemical and physical data. All the data will be publicly available for to use of researchers and to improve the decision making with regard to the marine environment.

12:00-12:10 Tali Mass - Tracking the Early Events of Mineral Formation During Coral Development

In the tropical and subtropical oceans, corals provide a literal and figurative ecological framework that retains nutrients, supports high rates of primary production, and permits extensive biological diversity. These fragile ecosystems are threatened with extinction in the coming century, in part due to the acidification of the ocean. The change in the acidity of the ocean may affect the coral skeleton formation, which is composed of calcium carbonate mineral. Elucidating the mechanism of calcium carbonate mineral formation in corals may help us to understand how environmental changes affect the process of coral biomineralization. Although various aspects of biomineralization in corals have been studied for decades, mostly on adult corals, the basic mechanism responsible for the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite remains enigmatic.
Corals have a biphasic life cycle with planktonic larval stages and benthic adults. These two phases are separated by settlement and metamorphosis, which are critical stages in coral development during which planulae undergo intense changes in morphology, building of new tissues, initiation of calcium carbonate precipitation, and in some cases uptake of symbionts. The planktonic free-swimming planulae deposit minerals almost immediately after settlement. This suggests that immature mineral phases (presumably amorphous calcium carbonate - ACC) is present in pre-settled planulae.
To elucidate the key mechanism that facilitates the initial, rapid calcification in the early stages of the coral development, we correlate cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with cryo-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and cryo-fluorescence techniques on coral planulae frozen samples. Using this approach and thus, avoiding the process of chemical fixation, dehydration and chemical staining with heavy metals, each planula is rapidly frozen at high pressure. As a result, the water is vitrified while keeping the sample as close as possible to its native state. We observed freeze-fractured surfaces of the sample using the cryo-SEM with both secondary electron and backscattered electron (BSE) detectors. The elements that are present in the mineralized regions are detected by EDS under cryogenic conditions. The cryo-fluorescence platform helps to identify auto-fluorescent symbionts and to detect mineralized regions in the developing planula via calcein blue staining.
Our results show that first mineral deposition in corals already starts at the pre-settlement. Immature minerals can vary in shape, Mg content and crystallinity. After settling, the aboral epidermis is attached to the substrate and begins skeleton formation. The first calcareous elements after settling are circular platelets and rod-shaped granules, which can also vary in Mg and Ca content and aggregate to form the primary septa, followed by the formation of the basal disk.


Maritime Strategy

12:10-12:25 Edward R. Lucas - Private Interests and Public Goods: British Efforts to Suppress Maritime Pirates in the South China Sea, 1921-35

What role do business elites play in shaping state foreign policy? I examine this question through an examination of British efforts to suppress maritime piracy in the South China Sea in the 1920s and 1930s. During this period Great Britain carried out numerous military interventions in a largely unsuccessful effort to suppress piracy off the coast of China. These actions ranged from stationing soldiers on passenger ships to landing troops in Chinese territory to destroy suspected “pirate villages.” Rather than acting to protect its own merchant fleet from predation or defending maritime trade more generally, the British government was spurred to act because of lobbying pressure from domestic business elites.   



12:25-13:00 BREAK 


Maritime Civilizations

13:00-13:10 Assaf Yasur-Landau - The (Paleo-)Anthropocene: A Study of Human Adaptive Behavior in a Mediterranean Context

The aim of the Laboratory for Coastal Archaeology and Underwater Survey is to examine, through integrative archaeology of land and sea, the human cultural adaptation to the specific conditions of the Mediterranean region. These were defined by Horden and Purcell “The Corrupting Sea” (2000) as characterized by: 1.Geographical division into Micro-regions; 2. Unpredictable climate, "bad years"; 3. Interregional connectivity by sea.

Adaptation to these conditions resulted in resilience in both the Bronze and Iron Age polities along the coast of Israel, with the use of well-tested, tensile building blocks of economy: 1. Mediterranean plant economy: grains, vine, olive (maximizing use of land, not a single crop economy, enabling storage); 2. Mediterranean animal husbandry: cattle, ovicaprides, pigs and 3. The use of connectivity by sea (trade, other maritime interactions) as an adaptive strategy for risk management. These adaptations resulted in the beginning of the Anthropocene in the coastal region of Israel: a deliberate modification of sites, flora, fauna, causing change in depositional processes in both land and sea.

Our work concentrates on three major sites:

Tel Kabri, a Middle Bronze Age palace decorated with Minoan wall paintings and containing a massive wine storage facility- a center of a Mediterranean polity

Tel Dor, a Bronze and Iron Ages, as well as Hellenistic to Byzantine coastal city, with ceramic evidence for contacts with Cyprus and Egypt, an example of a Mediterranean port city  

Tel Achziv, A Middle Bronze Age city and an Iron Age coastal center, connected with the golden Age of Phoenician expansion in the 8th and 7th centuries BCE expansion.

The study of these sites is characterized by the use of a unified, integrative archaeology of connectivity:

• Unified exploration of sea, coast/port, and tel settlement levels

• Reconstruction of the complete ranges of behavioral patterns from sailing, to activities in the port, to the consumption of traded goods in inland sites

• Closes the gap between underwater and tel archaeology in Israel, usually conducted by different expeditions and different research questions.

• Reconstruction of ancient landscape, assessing human impact on environment, basic research on formation processes.  

13:10-13:20 Ehud Arkin Shalev - A Combined Approach to Bronze and Iron Age Maritime Archaeology at Tel Dor

Iron Age Dor was the main urban center of the Southern Phoenician coast and the site of earlier, monumental Bronze Age architecture. The inundated bays of Dor have for the past five years been the subject of renewed archaeological investigation. Utilizing diver surveys, underwater excavation and organic material analysis, we have gained new insights into the maritime interfaces of ancient Dor. Here we present the interim results of research performed by the author as well as others from the Lab of Coastal Archaeology and Underwater Survey at the Dept. of Maritime Civilizations. 

13:20-13:30 Isaac Ogloblin Ramírez - Chemical and mineralogical changes in ceramics found underwater: Case study of Roman/Byzantine remains from Dor’s North Bay

The incorporation of material studies techniques into archaeology has highlighted the importance of the artifact's life cycle; from manufacture through use, discard and post-depositional changes. The latter involve chemical changes that are termed 'diagenesis'. Lack of consideration of diagenetic changes may result in mistaken archaeological interpretation. Underwater archaeology has been progressively applying material studies techniques, primarily those related to sourcing of pottery found as sunken cargo, yet the study of diagenesis in waterlogged artifacts is still lagging behind. In this M.A. thesis, I aimed to identify diagenetic changes that affect waterlogged ceramics collected during underwater surveys at the North Bay of Tel Dor associated with a pile of hewn stones and ballast pipes. A total of 31 samples mainly dating to the Late Roman and Byzantine periods (1st to 7th century AD) were collected, with consideration of their immediate environment and underwater orientation, termed the sea assemblage. These were compared to similar ceramic types that were obtained from coastal sites, termed the land assemblage (a total of six samples). The ceramic samples were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thin-section petrography, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Total Organic Carbon analysis.
Sub-sampling based on color differences in fresh ceramic cross-sections was conducted. Two color zones were observed in the sea assemblage, red and black, while no such differentiation was observed in the land assemblage. Using SEM-EDS and TOC it was evident that black zones are rich in the mineral pyrite, typical of the waterlogged ceramics. FTIR analyses revealed that ceramic types differ in firing temperature, and that iron oxides are present in the sea assemblage samples. The presence of post-depositional, probably biogenic, aragonite, Mg-rich calcite, and gypsum was identified as well, on the sea assemblage ceramic surfaces. Thin section petrography showed that pyrite in the sea assemblage, appearing as framboidal crystals, is mostly located 1-2mm internally from the ceramic surfaces, while iron oxides are prevalent on the ceramic perimeter.
The data indicate that pyrite formed in the waterlogged ceramic sherds due to anaerobic conditions. This occurred in all ceramics irrespective to their orientation or immediate environment underwater. The only sherds that did not develop thick pyritic zones are those containing external glaze. The presence of iron oxide near the ceramic surfaces of the sea assemblage is understood as a result of oxidization of pyrite. Two scenarios may explain the latter observation: (a) sherds were initially deposited in an anaerobic underwater environment where pyrite formed, and later exposed to oxidizing conditions, or (b) the waterlogged sherds include two microenvironments - an internal anaerobic and an external aerobic. Further research is required in order to distinguish between the two scenarios. Overall, this study provides for the first time an appreciation of the diagenetic changes in waterlogged ceramic sherds in one of Israel's ancient harbors and contributes new methodological approaches and insights that are important for underwater archaeology in general.

13:30-13:40 Paula Rut Zajac - In the Shadow of 'le grand commerce' - Hellenistic and Roman Harbors in the Southern Levant

Little is understood about the factors and agents behind the peak of maritime activity and the unparalleled degree of connectivity during the Late Hellenistic and Early Roman period (200 BCE – 100 CE) Mediterranean. If we assume that the principle agent of this connectivity was the Mediterranean Sea, obviously, harbors and anchorages would have played a major part in this connectivity. But their degree of magnitude and functionality within the maritime routine is controversial. Moreover, the surviving remains of the largest harbors have reinforced the picture of an organized and institutionalized Mediterranean in which these elaborated harbors allegedly occupied a prominent position. This dominating perception of the Mediterranean routine has greatly overshadowed a possible significance of other forms of mobility (such as coastal tramping) and solutions (such as small anchorages) in context of the burgeoning maritime activity. Instead, the function of small anchorages has often been downplayed as merely subsidiary to principle harbors of a given area. And though opponent voices have been raised – recognizing the value of small-scale interaction in maritime affairs – the established view persists. The study of both, large harbors and small anchorages as well as their hinterlands – performed over a longue durée – would greatly contribute to our understanding of these related issues. However, only few such studies exist.

This research project ties in with this debate and provides a comprehensive case study, focusing on the area of the Southern Coastal Levant in context of Mediterranean connectivity and local dynamics. Confined to the eastern fringes of the Mediterranean and connecting its southern and northern parts, the shores of the Southern Levant have played more than once a vital role in the consolidation of various Empires’ throughout the ages. However, neither classical archaeologists nor ancient historians have undertaken the venture to investigate this area as an independent unified entity. 

Against the backdrop of Rome’s expansion throughout the Mediterranean, both a “macro”-Mediterranean and a “micro”-local perspective is adapted, examining the empire’s simultaneous local Levantine dynamics, taking place in the “shadow” of the grand politics. Different types of indicators – for instance harbor technology, settlement patterns, ceramic assemblages from underwater and terrestrial sites, or ancient harbor terminology – have been chosen deliberately for examination within this research, in search for answers pertaining to the ancient Mediterranean routine. 

Though still a work in progress, initial results of the dissertation relating to harbor technology and ancient harbor terminology call into question the established view on the superior role of sophisticated harbors – at least in this part of the Mediterranean.


Maritime History

13:40-13:50 Gil Gambash - Empire and the Mediterranean

The field of maritime history in the Mediterranean naturally bears on the discussion of the grand strategy of ancient empires in the region, but has yet to be investigated from such a perspective. Broadly defined as ‘the constant and intelligent reassessment of the polity’s ends and means,’ grand strategy has been the subject of a heated scholarly debate insofar as regards its presence in the administration of empires in the ancient world. Starting in the late 70s, a groundbreaking hypothesis was put forward by Edward Luttwak, recognizing an elaborate scheme of long-term aims and carefully-planned solutions in the Roman Empire’s defense system. Soon thereafter, however, scholars came to be suspicious of the ability and motivation of ancient imperial governments to formulate and adhere to policies of grand strategic scope. Quite independently of this discussion, the research of maritime activity has grown accustomed regularly to presuppose the existence in the background of imperial governments constantly and intelligently reassessing their ends and means. Fleets, maritime routes, security arrangements, trade networks, and, above all, artificial harbors, are regularly conjectured by maritime historians and archaeologists to have existed as a result of deliberate central planning. In effect, in the specialized field of maritime history an unsubstantiated picture prevails of imperial grand strategy at work. My current aims to put to the test the viability of this picture by applying tenets from the field of strategic studies to ancient maritime history. By doing so, a better understanding of the very raison d’être of such major naval centers as Phoenician Carthage, Persian Akko, Athenian Piraeus, Roman Portus, and the networks working around them, should be obtained. On the flip side of the discussion, an examination of the maritime sphere conducted from the perspective of strategic studies would throw revealing light on the problem of ancient grand strategy, and is expected to inform the ongoing debate.

13:50-14:00 Eleonora Bedin - Macro- and Micro-Identities: Mediterranean, Imperial, and Local Self-Perceptions in Ptolemaic Anatolia, Cyprus, and the Levant

To what extent can we identify a Hellenistic ideology of Empire, and the adoption or rejection thereof by local groups within defined micro-regions?

This research will examine the interrelationship between macro- and micro-identities in Southern Anatolia, Cyprus and the Levant, during the Hellenistic period. On the basis of literary and epigraphic sources, the research will focus on the identification, the analysis of locality, whether Greek or indigenous, and their self-representation, both locally unique and regionally shared. Based on the results, it will be the goal of this research to offer a paradigm of micro-regional self-perception in the Hellenistic world.

The novelty of this work has two bases. Firstly, it offers a wider view of local realities in the Hellenistic period, proceeding from macro-identities (Mediterranean and Hellenistic) to micro-identities (micro-regional and local). Secondly, it creates a unique comparative platform for examining and generalizing on Mediterranean micro-regions functioning under the authority of the Empire.

14:00-14:10 Summary